Observations
How can we assist a bilingual student in primary school learning a subject like mathematics in English in Thailand?
We can begin by making a few observations guided by practical considerations. Here are two of the first few pages of a standard mathematics workbook for the Grade 4 level. A student in Grade 4 is between nine and ten years old. This workbook is based on the Primary Mathematics Syllabus of Singapore. Bilingual students in primary school learning mathematics in English will often encounter materials very similar to this:
Reference: Fong, H. K., Ramakrishnan, C., & Gan, K. S. (2007). My Pals Are Here! Maths 4AWorkbook (2nd ed., Vol. 4A, My Pals Are Here!). Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Education.
Bilingual students in Grade 4 are also presented with numerous mathematical problems in word form. Take a close look at the following problem and put yourself in the bilingual shoes of a nineyearold when you do.
Reference: Fong, H. K., Ramakrishnan, C., & Gan, K. S. (2016). My Pals Are Here! Maths 4AWorkbook (3rd ed., Vol. 4A, My Pals Are Here!). Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Education.
By the time the bilingual students reach Grade 5, the students may encounter numerous mathematical problems in word form such as this. Again, put on those shoes.
Reference: Fong, H. K., Ramakrishnan, C., & Gan, K. S. (2007). My Pals Are Here! Maths 5AWorkbook (2nd ed., Vol. 5A, My Pals Are Here!). Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Education.
And by the time the bilingual students reach the Grade 6 level, the students may be confronted with the following mathematical problem to be solved.
Reference: Fong, H. K., Ramakrishnan, C., & Gan, K. S. (2007). My Pals Are Here! Maths 6AWorkbook (2nd ed., Vol. 6A, My Pals Are Here!). Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Education.
If the bilingual students were only presented with problems in numerical form with a simple instruction such as “Solve this:” which the bilingual students can interpret, then such problems can be solved with the mathematical knowledge the students obtained in their first language. For example, bilingual students presented with the following calculation will most likely rely upon and employ mathematical facts obtained in their first language to solve this problem, even if this problem is presented in the English mathematics classroom:
A bilingual student who memorized multiplication facts in his or her first language will most likely rely on recalling those facts committed to memory in the first language to do this calculation. Nothing wrong with that. If there’s a problem to be solved, best to use anything and everything at your disposal.

To continue, if a bilingual student in Grade 4 encounters the following mathematical problem, I think you will agree with me that for the student to be in a position to solve this problem, the student will have to be first thoroughly introduced to the mathematical ideas around which this question was formulated, and those ideas in English:
Reference: Fong, H. K., Ramakrishnan, C., & Gan, K. S. (2016). My Pals Are Here! Maths 4AWorkbook (3rd ed., Vol. 4A, My Pals Are Here!). Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Education.
We can see that this question was based upon the topic of rounding numbers and the topic of rounding numbers would include the mathematical ideas pertaining to the principles of rounding numbers –How do we round numbers off?– which would further include the ideas of the greatest number, the smallest number, the nearest ten, the nearest hundred and the students will also always encounter the concept of value. But, only thinking of a question in terms of it being based upon a topic, is merely a matter of categorization.
It would be more helpful to think of these questions as having been formulated. If we put ourselves in the shoes of the person who designed this question, we can see how specific mathematical ideas relating to the topic of rounding numbers were taken into consideration in the formulation of –to form– this question. And if a question has been formulated around specific ideas, it then follows that a question such as this requires the application of knowledge with the knowledge being an understanding of those ideas, since those ideas are being put to the test in the question.
In practice, I was often confronted with the notion that a complete understanding of the underlying mathematical ideas could be reached by only doing the exercises in the publishers' materials. However, I just cannot bring myself to an understanding of how a child would be able to find the greatest possible value of something, for example, if the child didn’t know what a greatest possible value is.
What I can see though is, if a student had a good understanding of how to round numbers and what a greatest possible value is in the context of rounding numbers, how the student would then be able to go and apply this knowledge to solve this problem. And even with an understanding of the underlying mathematical ideas, this particular problem is still challenging. Doing the exercises by applying knowledge is still good practicing and solving these problems should be attempted, and then the students can even gain the additional knowledge of learning how to apply knowledge to solve problems which is a handy skill indeed.
What? How? Why? IDEAS
What exactly are all these ideas encountered in primary school mathematics?
Let’s assume a consensus can be reached that an understanding of all the underlying mathematical ideas cannot necessarily be reached by only doing the exercises, and for students to acquire mathematical ideas, they should be introduced to the ideas. Perhaps we can get a better grasp of exactly what these ideas may be, by categorizing ideas into three simple groups:
In a bilingual mathematics classroom we encounter an enormous amount of Mathematical ideas of the WHAT kind as a direct result of working in a second language and also because this would be a more conceptual approach to understanding the subject. Here are some examples of Mathematical ideas of the WHAT kind that students in the Grade 4 level, for example, will need to have a good understanding of:


Mathematical ideas of the WHAT kind will continue to surface with the introduction of new topics and with the expansion of old topics in the subsequent grade levels.
We can clearly see we are dealing with meaning here and attaining an understanding of the meaning of these ideas must be reached for a complete conceptualization of the subject matter to occur. Mathematical ideas of the WHAT kind also has a tendency to produce more Mathematical ideas of the WHAT kind, for example, when you begin to explain what a fraction is, you by default will have to clarify what a part is and what a whole is to ensure the concept of a fraction gets grasped.
Mathematical ideas of the WHAT kind generates an enormous amount of information that must be engaged with because if these ideas are given a superficial treatment, a complete understanding thereof will not be reached leading to complications in the future. A superficial treatment may be given to these meanings in the bilingual mathematics classroom if the sentiment perhaps is, “Since we're dealing with meaning, this is a matter of English comprehension, so the language teacher is responsible.” And if at a later stage the students are unable to do the exercises, it may be excused as, “They don’t understand the language.” In a way this may be true, but, these are mathematical ideas particular to the subject and knowing the meanings of these ideas are very important for a thorough understanding of the subject to be reached. The sentiment may be that in the mathematics classroom we only deal with Mathematical ideas of the HOW kind –only doing numerical calculations– even though it is difficult to see how one would approach Mathematical ideas of the HOW kind without giving due attention to Mathematical ideas of the WHAT kind.
Mathematical ideas of the HOW kind receives the most attention, but attention focused more on numerical calculations. This is also important and this is not a case against Mathematical ideas of the HOW kind, this is a case for Mathematical ideas of ALL kind. But, before the students proceed to do the exercises in their workbooks, they should first be properly introduced and become familiar with the underlying principles that can be applied to perform these mathematical procedures.

Examples of Mathematical ideas of the HOW kind in the Grade 5 level, for example, may include:

Observe how an understanding of Mathematical ideas of the WHAT kind such as knowing what a mixed number is, what a proper fraction is, what an improper fraction is, the students in a more favorable position would place to better grasp Mathematical ideas of the HOW kind.
However, Mathematical ideas of the HOW kind can also be given a superficial treatment especially in cases where exercises on the surface appear to be relatively easy, such as writing a number in words, but if no one has ever equipped the young bilingual learner with a practical methodology of HOW –the meaning that is in the HOW to do something– to write numbers in the words of a second language, the exercise may not be as easy as it appears. Knowing WHAT a place value table is belongs to Mathematical ideas of the WHAT kind, but knowing HOW a place value table can be used to write numbers in words belongs to Mathematical ideas of the HOW kind. Unfortunately, these ideas are also often given a superficial treatment. In practice, some fundamental ideas get a watereddown treatment yearafteryear and so the cups stay empty.
Mathematical ideas of the WHY kind, if given a treatment at all, can yield brilliant insights to help the students reach a deeper understanding of the subject matter and it also makes the subject matter more interesting. For example, knowing WHAT a square or a rectangle is and knowing HOW to find the areas or perimeters of these shapes may appear to be a little boring if given a superficial treatment, but by considering a few Mathematical ideas of the WHY kind one could potentially open a portal into another dimension like the classic twodimensions of Flatland. If students can be guided towards conceptualizing and playing in something like a Flatland when they are learning about squares and rectangles in Grade 4, a more profound understanding of plane geometry can be reached which would be good preparation for the threedimensional world of solid geometry to come. If these conceptualizations never occur, then the claim that mathematical ideas are being conveyed cannot be made.
Ideally, if students could also be encouraged to ask more questions of the Mathematical ideas of the WHY kind, the whole dynamic of the learning experience could drastically improve. However, if Mathematical ideas of the WHAT kind and Mathematical ideas of the HOW kind were both given superficial treatments resulting in the students not having formed a conceptual mindscape, it would be difficult –and understandably so– for the students to generate questions around the subject matter they’re engaged in. Mathematical ideas of the WHY kind if explored, can also serve in making connections between old and new topics. For example, in Grade 4 students learn to find the area of a rectangle and in Grade 5 students learn to find the area of a triangle and by asking, "WHY is the triangle’s formula for finding the area a little bit different than the rectangle’s formula for finding the area?" connections between topics can be made making it easier to comprehend the new information.
In practice, Mathematical ideas of the WHY kind are also unfortunately sometimes dealt with in a superficial manner. Since Mathematical ideas of the WHY kind can lead towards so many interesting and different directions, these ideas are often used as topics for projects and activities. However, if the projects are more centered on an attempt to improve the general morale of the students for capturing temporary happy faces for the sake of publicity, then Mathematical ideas of the WHY kind falls flatter than a square in Flatland.
In view of the aforementioned and still staying focused on addressing the question: How can we assist a bilingual student in primary school learning a subject like mathematics in English? I have made the following observations. See if you agree with these:
Some of these observations can be correlated to sentiments expressed in the Primary Mathematics Syllabus of Singapore. If the materials in use are based on a particular syllabus, then that syllabus by default comes into play because the person working for the publishers whose job it is to formulate these questions –like the formulated questions shown before– is in all likelihood adhering to the basic philosophy of the syllabus upon which the materials are based. Observe the following two excerpts taken from the Primary Mathematics Syllabus of Singapore:
Source: Ministry of Education, Singapore Curriculum Planning and Development Division. Mathematics Syllabus Primary.
A literal interpretation of the Primary Mathematics Syllabus of Singapore will make clear the path to be embarked upon, but in practice there are other interpretations like the following and already mentioned one, but it’s so pervasive it’s worth mentioning again: Completing the exercises will manifest an understanding of all the underlying mathematical ideas. This interpretation is often supported by using the example of working through the process of a numerical calculation intended to prove that a complete understanding of primary mathematics can be reached, by only doing the exercises, irrespective of the fact that not every mathematical insight to be gained can be deduced from merely performing a numerical calculation. Besides, when children work through the processes of whatever procedures they’re performing, they will of course gain insights and hone their skills of the processes they are engaged in –to the degree that they can comprehend what they are doing–. But, having said that, the kind of procedural functioning imposed on the children under bureaucratic conditions is a darkness that will be brought into the light a little later in this investigation.
Since the mathematical problems are contained in a standard workbook, this interpretation of completing the exercises as the only means of gaining knowledge also has the tendency to turn the workbook into the main attraction and a workbook that is the main attraction is a workbook that must be filled. But the filling of a workbook and the practicing of solving mathematical problems are two different things. Solving a mathematical problem in the same workbook is a good exercise and must be done, but merely going through materials of which children may not have an understanding is a practice completely out of sync with the essence of education.
By the time the children get to Grade 6, the complexity of a single mathematical problem can be quite staggering because a single problem can be comprised of several mathematical ideas and ideas taken from various topics and ideas from the preceding years. If the children were not thoroughly introduced to these mathematical ideas, there could be gaps in their understanding and then they won’t be able to apply knowledge to solve problems because some knowledge was never acquired. An increase in the number of ideas in a problem will most likely result in an increase in the degree of complexity. In practice, for example, when Grade 6 students are busy with a particular topic at a particular time, they will often encounter mathematical problems formulated around numerous other mathematical ideas, in addition to the ideas of the new topic, and especially if the topics being covered are mediated by the sort of materials shown at the outset of this investigation. Then, when a Grade 6 teacher does exercises on the board to guide the students –and also because it helps to get the workbooks filled– there may be a lack of time to adequately identify each and every mathematical idea that the students may not know, or a lack of time to revisit each and every idea in each and every problem and so the gaps in the students’ understanding can remain.
And then, under the guise of “Helping the students” or “They don’t understand the language” things like assessments or exams can be significantly watereddown. But for now, the issue of assessment is a whole other topic that can be dealt with on another day. Before we conjure up ideas on how to test the children, let’s first solve the problem of leading them to knowledge. Nevertheless, it’s interesting to observe this all too common trajectory. It starts with the common notion that a complete understanding of the mathematical ideas can be reached by only doing the exercises in the publishers’ materials, to end at a point where assessments can be significantly dumbeddown with a justification under the guise of and amounting to, “It’s for the benefit of the students.” Take a second to reflect upon the implications of such a deluded sympathy. One implication of this false sympathy lies in its power to stifle preventive measures. But, if such a sympathy was indeed employed to stifle preventive measures, it raises the question: Why would conscientious adults dabble in the stifling of preventive measures in an environment where actions impact children? Answers may be found when we take a closer look at bureaucratic conditions later in this investigation.
Delving Deeper
But, let’s proceed with caution because if we continue along this line of reasoning we’ll begin to replicate the kind of binary reasoning popular in practice that’s used to generate solutions for problems, but without the problems being first and clearly identified. It goes a little like this: Two general ideas concerning education are reduced to verbal platitudes and framed in opposition to each other resulting in a pair of eitheror solutions. For example, when one faction puts forth the idea that the children should be explicitly taught, an opposing faction, time and again and for example, may counter such a notion by simply stating that the students should be learning by doing. If one faction advocates a conceptual approach, the other advocates a projectbased approach. If one faction advocates knowledge, the other advocates skills. If one faction says the children should practice writing, the other will say that they should practice speaking and on and on it goes. The latest and greatest learning theories and a whole array of educational jargon fit snugly into the parameters of this kind of binary reasoning. If one practitioner says this, the other will say that. But, if educational ideas are forced to fit into the parameters of this kind of binary reasoning, we’ll deprive ourselves of a contemplation of a whole and a whole comprising interrelated parts like the project of education. So, let’s delve a little deeper. Here are duplicate excerpts from the Primary Mathematics Syllabus of Singapore. Let’s see what we can learn:
If emphasis is placed on only one or only a few of these components, then the development of mathematical problem solving ability will be hindered by such an imbalance. It’s also interesting to note that a great deal of these underlying principles could be readily applied to the entire project of education, not only mathematics.

Source: Ministry of Education, Singapore Curriculum Planning and Development Division. Mathematics Syllabus Primary.
The ability to solve mathematical problems –the broad aim of mathematics learning– is dependent on five interrelated components according to this syllabus. In other words, all of these components are important in mathematics learning together with the underlying principles pinned to these components.

A healthy learning environment will produce concrete evidence of instances in which students employed some of these underlying principles such as reasoning and thinking skills. Thinking skills may include classifying, comparing, sequencing, analyzing, identifying patterns and relationships, induction, deduction and spatial visualization according to the Singaporean Syllabus. Evidence can be obtained by scrutinizing the regular daytoday work of the students. If a child employed one or some of the aforementioned thinking skills in the production of a work sample, for example, then concrete evidence of an instance in which that child employed a particular thinking skill, will be observable in the information displayed of said work sample. To account for the thinking skill of classifying, we need to see an instance where the child worked and classified things. To account for the thinking skill of comparing, we need to see an instance where the child worked and compared things. To account for the thinking skill of sequencing, we need to see an instance where the child worked and sequenced things, et cetera.
We can obtain numerous valuable insights by analyzing a work sample. For example, we can learn HOW the creator of the work sample engaged with the informational content of the lesson and this may also tell us –as already mentioned– if a particular thinking skill was employed during the creation of said work sample. If we know HOW a child engaged with the informational content, it also provides us with a record that we can refer back to, if it was to be found that an understanding of a particular topic was not reached. In such a case, perhaps a certain kind of HOW did not work, but then, with the now added value of hindsight –thanks to the work sample record– a new strategy can be developed to assist the student. And since a topic will comprise the informational content pertaining to that topic, a work sample will also provide us with a record of exactly WHAT was studied.
With the aforementioned framework still fresh in our memories, let’s see if we can corroborate some instances in which bilingual primary students worked around some of the interrelated components making up the mathematics framework, by looking at some actual work samples. The following work samples were taken from a supplementary material I created for bilingual students learning mathematics and science in Grades 4, 5 and 6 that I simply called a journal. One of the functions of a journal was for it to serve as a mechanism to provide the bilingual students –and teachers– with information and language support, but another and perhaps more important function was to provide the children with a work area resembling a blank canvas to let loose the creativity that they possess.
A little later in this investigation, I’ll do a quick rundown on how to assemble a journal, because not only is it an effective way for putting a curriculum into operation, it’s relatively cheap and very easy. The primary kids in a prestigious private school may have the good fortune to learn how to add and subtract fractions by building robots and playing on computers, but by connecting the imagination to pen and paper we can shatter the bonds of material constraints. The Promethean spirit that causes technology lies in the creation of a tool and in the creation of technology, not in the consumption thereof. For example, an atlas is a tool that can be used to navigate through unknown territories and if the unknown territory is primary school mathematics, then a helpful tool –and a creative project for the children to embark upon– would be the creation of a mathematical atlas so that everyone can see where they’re going, and they’d even be able to retrace their steps, if anyone headed in the wrong direction.
To follow is a snapshot of four journals. In the top left corner is a Grade 5 science journal and in the top right corner is a Grade 6 science journal. The two journals at the bottom are Grade 5 mathematics journals. The invitation the blank canvas extends is a call to put the imagination to work. The rationale: a stimulated imagination is fertile soil for learning. By evoking the creative spirit we can increase our chances of inculcating a sense of interest and enjoyment in the children when they’re learning. This is in line with the suggestions in the excerpt taken from the Singaporean Syllabus for the component of ATTITUDES. This is not an indepth analysis of these four work samples because for now we simply want to see if we can gain a general sense of a positive attitude and I think that these four work samples this indeed reflect. The only trauma this work could possibly cause is a state of perplexity in the bureaucratic administrators when they try to figure out which administrative box to tick off for what transpired here. The vibrant colors and pictures may also trigger a case of glossolalia in the seasoned mimetic practitioner and loyal supporter of the bureaucratic administrator who derives pleasure from subjecting children year after year to templatebound, formfilling materials, and when this happens they babble things like, “This is not learning, this is the drawing of pictures.” We can clearly see that each one of these four children expended time and energy to produce this work during which attention must have been placed on the informational content comprising the four lessons. Placing attention on the informational content for the absorption of that information to occur is an essential step in the meaningmaking process for an understanding of the topic to be reached.
The work sample to follow was taken from a Grade 4 mathematics journal and is aligned with the component of PROCESSES which would include thinking skills and heuristics as can be seen in the excerpt. Observe how a work sample us allow to peer straight into the classroom. It’s almost like a window through which we can peer to see exactly what transpired. From this work sample, we can see that this student worked through the lesson: How do we add and subtract fractions? providing us with a clear account of WHAT was studied. Quite a significant amount of the suggestions in the excerpt from the Singaporean Syllabus was employed during the creation of this work sample. Here we can also see that the child expended time and energy and focused her attention on a specific topic and this is important for the acquisition of meaning for how would we acquire the meaning of the thing we’re busy learning if we don’t direct our focused attention to that thing? If this was information that the teacher presented on the board, as opposed to individual work that the child produced, we can still see that during this lesson the student must have been engaged in a meaningmaking process. The steps are clearly enunciated and aided by visual models which may have been the teacher’s explanation of the topic and an explanation of a topic in a bilingual classroom in which the children are also learning the English variation of the mathematics is an essential part of the bilingual lesson. In consideration of the aforementioned, I think we can safely conclude that this child was engaged in a learning process from this work sample. After this preparatory work –which is simply an instance of a teaching and a learning– the child would be in a better position to go and tackle the exercises in a traditional mathematics workbook. Just a reminder: a child in Grade 4 is between nine and ten years old.
Here is an excerpt of the component of PROCESSES but this time as it pertains to reasoning, communication, and connections. This work sample was taken from a Grade 5 mathematics journal. Observe what the student wrote at step 4 in the work sample. This kid injected a bit of humor into a mathematics lesson which is an excellent indicator of creativity and also originality, providing us with a clear account that the child not only employed good communication but also good reasoning.
In the following work sample from Grade 5 mathematics, the student under the guidance of the teacher explored alternative ways for solving the same problem exactly as recommended in the component of METACOGNITION. The call to put the imagination to work was answered loud and clear during this lesson. It’s difficult to initiate creative tasks like this in the confines of templatebound, formfilling materials. Consider this: if a child in Grade 5 in an average bilingual school in Bangkok attended three years of kindergarten in addition to the first five years of primary, such a child by their eighth year of schooling may already have been subjected to 2,000 pages of templatebound, formfilling materials. Just imagine what that does to the developing mind. It’s a conservative estimate because the children may be exposed to more than 250 pages of templatebound, formfilling materials including the filling in of stuporinducing worksheets in a single year. Anyhow, if that is indeed the case, then providing the children with a blank canvas to work through the informational content that is required for an understanding of a topic to be reached ~ may well be a form of therapy.
A window into the classroom by work sample can show us how and if a child expended time and energy and focused his or her attention on the information that is necessary for an understanding of a topic to be reached. The very simple objective is to engage the child in a meaningmaking process. If we can engage a child in a meaningmaking process in which the child is unraveling a topic to make sense of that topic to obtain meaning, an understanding of that topic can be reached. Once an understanding of a topic has been reached, an instance of a knowledge of that topic has been achieved. The quantity of the content of primary school mathematics is a fair bit, but for the bilingual children the informational content is a great deal more because they’re also learning the additional component of the language of the subject. Learning a subject in a second language requires an engagement with a lot of information. This is another reason why it is beneficial to put pen to paper in something like a mathematics journal. By putting pen to paper in a creative way, the children can become creators creating their own individual versions of a childfriendly mathematics textbook in which the informational content that provides answers to the WHAT, HOW and WHY questions can be stored. Therefore, a journal can serve as an atlas, and can also serve as an external information storage device that the children can later refer to, to reacquaint themselves with an idea. But still, the main purpose is for teacher and child to be engaged in a meaningmaking process. Unfortunately, and lamentably so, for bureaucratic eyes and bureaucratic mind, creative work that gives an account of an engagement in the meaningmaking process is a meaningless commodity. Let’s explore why this is so.
Bureaucratic Conditions
Under bureaucratic conditions, the meaningmaking process can be discarded to be replaced with the fulfillment of administrative procedures. In fact, not only can the meaningmaking process be discarded with, but meaning itself can be altered. For example, under the auspices of bureaucratic administration, a teacher may be required to submit a lesson plan to the bureaucratic administrator as a documented record of the planning and preparation work the teacher has done for lessons to be delivered in the classroom. To all appearances, this may seem to be a reasonable request. However, if the meaning of what a lesson plan is has been altered, the intended consequences that the original meaning could have produced will not emerge because the new meaning will only be able to produce the consequences congruent to the new meaning. For example, and this will be elaborated upon in great detail in the remainder of this inquiry, if a teacher’s planning and preparation –as documented in the lesson plan– has been turned into administration work –the fulfillment of an administrative task being the new meaning of what a lesson plan is, even though this attribution is not explicitly stated which is a convenience that the alteration of meaning allows for since the term “lesson plan” (the surface information) is still in use– the teacher may end up teaching administration work. This can be corroborated, for example, by taking a closer look at the children’s homework and if the homework looks like administration work of the formfilling and replication kind, it could be indicative that the children may be apprentices in bureaucratic administration.
Henceforth, this inquiry takes an interesting but necessary turn as it begins to explore a phenomenon common in practice in which value is not placed on meaning, like the meaning of an idea, but instead, value seems to be diverted to the surface level where ideas are given an appearance. For example, an idea can be made perceptible –on the surface level– by the sights and the sounds of language, and then in practice, focus and attention seems to be directed to the surface level only, without due consideration of the abstract meaning information giving form to ideas. It is this phenomenon that may lead to the widespread practice of memorization and replication and perpetual repetition of both visual and auditory surface information. Fortunately, all of this is explored in great depth in the remainder of this inquiry which also includes simple and practical solutions on how this phenomenon can be addressed.

If anyone is actively working on finding solutions in education in Thailand and are interested in taking a look at the remainder of this inquiry, please feel free to initiate contact for the sharing of information to continue.
Looking forward,
Martyn
Looking forward,
Martyn
INFORMATION REPORT
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APA Style
Krügel, M. W. (2019, March 09). A Look Beneath The Surface. Mr. Martyn's Office: Room 1.
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Chicago Style
Krügel, Martyn W. "A Look Beneath The Surface." Mr. Martyn's Office: Room 1.
Last modified March 09, 2019. https://mrmartynsofficemywork.weebly.com/.
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Krügel, Martyn W. "A Look Beneath The Surface." Mr. Martyn's Office: Room 1.
Mr. Martyn's Office: Room 1, 09 Mar 2019. Web. DD / MMM / YYYY
Mr. Martyn's Office: Room 1, 09 Mar 2019. Web. DD / MMM / YYYY